GOPro: Generate and Optimize Prompts in CLIP using Self-Supervised Learning

Mainak Singha (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay),* Ankit Jha (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay), Biplab Banerjee (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay)
The 34th British Machine Vision Conference


Large-scale foundation models, such as CLIP, have demonstrated remarkable success in visual recognition tasks by embedding images in a semantically rich space. Self-supervised learning (SSL) has also shown promise in improving visual recognition by learning invariant features. However, the combination of CLIP with SSL is found to face challenges due to the multi-task framework that blends CLIP’s contrastive loss and SSL’s loss, including difficulties with loss weighting and inconsistency among different views of images in CLIP’s output space. To overcome these challenges, we propose a prompt learning-based model called GOPro, which is a unified framework that ensures similarity between various augmented views of input images in a shared image-text embedding space, using a pair of learnable image and text projectors atop CLIP, to promote invariance and generalizability. To automatically learn such prompts, we leverage the visual content and style primitives extracted from pre-trained CLIP and adapt them to the target task. In addition to CLIP’s cross-domain contrastive loss, we introduce a visual contrastive loss and a novel prompt consistency loss, considering the different views of the images. GOPro is trained end-to-end on all three loss objectives, combining the strengths of CLIP and SSL in a principled manner. Empirical evaluations demonstrate that GOPro outperforms the state-of-the-art prompting techniques on three challenging domain generalization tasks across multiple benchmarks by a significant margin.



author    = {Mainak Singha and Ankit Jha and Biplab Banerjee},
title     = {GOPro: Generate and Optimize Prompts in CLIP using Self-Supervised Learning},
booktitle = {34th British Machine Vision Conference 2023, {BMVC} 2023, Aberdeen, UK, November 20-24, 2023},
publisher = {BMVA},
year      = {2023},
url       = {}

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