Infinite Class Mixup

Thomas Mensink (Google Research), Pascal Mettes (University of Amsterdam)*
The 34th British Machine Vision Conference


Mixup is a widely adopted strategy for training deep networks, where additional samples are augmented by interpolating inputs and labels of training pairs. Mixup has shown to improve classification performance, network calibration, and out-of-distribution generalisation. While effective, a cornerstone of Mixup, namely that networks learn linear behaviour patterns between classes, is only indirectly enforced since the output interpolation is performed at the probability level. This paper seeks to address this limitation by mixing the classifiers directly instead of mixing the labels for each mixed pair. We propose to define the target of each augmented sample as a uniquely new classifier, whose parameters are a linear interpolation of the classifier vectors of the input pair. The space of all possible classifiers is continuous and spans all interpolations between classifier pairs. To make optimisation tractable, we propose a dual-contrastive Infinite Class Mixup loss, where we contrast the classifier of a mixed pair to both the classifiers and the predicted outputs of other mixed pairs in a batch. Infinite Class Mixup is generic in nature and applies to many variants of Mixup. Empirically, we show that it outperforms standard Mixup and variants such as RegMixup and Remix on balanced, long-tailed, and data-constrained benchmarks, highlighting its broad applicability. The code is available online at:



author    = {Thomas Mensink and Pascal Mettes},
title     = {Infinite Class Mixup},
booktitle = {34th British Machine Vision Conference 2023, {BMVC} 2023, Aberdeen, UK, November 20-24, 2023},
publisher = {BMVA},
year      = {2023},
url       = {}

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